Visitor: =17890496&itool=iconabstr&itool=pubmed_DocSum 

A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet.

Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2217 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, CB 7461, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effect of a low-fat, vegan diet compared with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) diet on weight loss maintenance at 1 and 2 years.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Sixty-four overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a vegan or NCEP diet for 14 weeks, and 62 women began the study. The study was done in two replications. Participants in the first replication (N = 28) received no follow-up support after the 14 weeks, and those in the second replication (N = 34) were offered group support meetings for 1 year. Weight and diet adherence were measured at 1 and 2 years for all participants. Weight loss is reported as median (interquartile range) and is the difference from baseline weight at years 1 and 2.

RESULTS: Individuals in the vegan group lost more weight than those in the NCEP group at 1 year [-4.9 (-0.5, -8.0) kg vs. -1.8 (0.8, -4.3); p < 0.05] and at 2 years [-3.1 (0.0, -6.0) kg vs. -0.8 (3.1, -4.2) kg; p < 0.05]. Those participants offered group support lost more weight at 1 year (p < 0.01) and 2 years (p < 0.05) than those without support. Attendance at meetings was associated with improved weight loss at 1 year (p < 0.001) and 2 years (p < 0.01).

DISCUSSION: A vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

PMID: 17890496 [PubMed - in process]

Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

[Article in English, Portuguese]

De Biase SG, Fernandes SF, Gianini RJ, Duarte JL.

Catholic University at São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) among vegetarians and omnivores.

METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals--both males and females--separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans). Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG.

RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 +/- 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 +/- 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001). LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 +/- 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 +/- 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001). As for TG, those values were 155.68 +/- 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 +/- 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01). As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in vegans (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Vegetarian diet was associated to lower levels of TG, TC and LDL as compared to the diet of omnivores.

PMID: 17364116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk.

Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO.

Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences and Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, 4566 Scott Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

BACKGROUND: Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets.

RESULTS: BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.005). Plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, blood pressure (BP), and carotid artery intima-media thickness were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p < 0.05). Both systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p < 0.001); BP values were directly associated with sodium intake and inversely associated with potassium and fiber intake.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term consumption of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.

PMID: 17518696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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