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Timeline of Events:
Lab Animal Welfare Act (LAWA) of USA signed into law
Ruth Harrison writes Animal
Machines and publicizes the welfare issues of modern
farming practices to Britain. 2,3
Subsequent to the publication of
Animal Machines, Britain forms the Brambell Committee to investigate animal welfare in agriculture. They issue a series of recommendations on
prohibiting debeaking, docking of pig's tails, tethering of sows and of veal calves. Their report stated that all animals should have "five freedoms:" freedom of movement to be
able to turn around, groom itself, get up, lie down, and stretch its limbs." The
recommendations are never put into law.
Growing animal rights activism in Britain feeds the future U.S. animal rights movement
Rhode Island law signed prohibiting the seizure of pound animals for laboratory use.
New Jersey law signed prohibiting the seizure of pound animals for laboratory use
Congress passes and later amends the Horse Protection Act
Congress passes amendments to the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (LAWA) and renames it the Animal Welfare Act (AWA)
U.S. passes and ratifies several national and international acts protecting species from
extinction and endangerment; e.g. Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, Endangered Species Act, Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES)
The term 'speciesism' is coined referring to the belief that humans are more important
than other species.
The book Animal Liberation draws a connection between speciesism,
sexism, and racism
Diet for a Small Planet published, popularizing the concept of vegetarianism for
environmental, socio-economic, and animal welfare reasons
The newly-emerging movement succeeds in stopping experiments on cats at the New
York Museum of Natural History. This is the first victory of the animal rights movement
and the first time the American press refers to the activists as 'animal rights activists'
versus 'animal lovers.'
The animal rights movement successfully repeals the Metcalf-Hatch Act which
required municipal pounds to sell animals to research.
The Animal Rights Network forms in the U.S. and begins publication of the
Agenda, a bimonthly magazine designed to educate and advocate about animal rights
issues as well as to aid cooperation between animal rights organizations.
The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) forms out of the group Band of Mercy and steps up
actions in Great Britain
Three 'liberation' raids are claimed by U.S. animal rights groups
Switzerland begins phasing out battery cages for poultry by requiring 500cm for caged
European Commission bans the importation of seal fur.
European Community (EC) agrees to minimum hen cage size of 450 cm by 1995 and
2 bans imports of pelts from leghold traps beginning in 1995.
European Parliament recommends (but cannot require) that battery cages be phased out
Britain requires that a calf must be able to turn around without difficulty and be fed
"sufficient iron to maintain it in full health and vigour" and enough fiber for normal development of the rumen.
Sweden outlaws battery cages and mandates that farm and fur production animals must be
maintained in "as natural an environment as possible."
U.S. Animal Welfare Act is amended to increase psychological requirements for primates
and to require exercise for dogs
After judgment against USDA, APHIS issues new horse protection rules
REAC and other units added to APHIS in major restructuring
Secretary of Agriculture orders ten projects studying farm animal welfare. In 1984, the
USDA releases a 1 ' page Interpretive Summary of the studies. Activists claim a USDA
coverup and that the veal industry was leaked the report prior to it's public release
Alex Hershaft brings together leaders from animal rights and vegetarian movements in an organized manner for the first time. The result is the creation of multiple organizations, each with a slightly different area of animal rights to address
Diet for a New America published. Connects animal welfare, healthy eating, and vegetarianism
Veal Ban Campaign started by Farm Animal Reform Movement (FARM). Alex Hershaft dramatizes the plight of the veal calf by confining himself to a veal crate for 24 hours
outside of the White House.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), is founded and provides high-level
organization and political savvy. Well-publicized and successful campaigns on local and
national levels increase support for the movement.
Alex Pacheco investigates and publicizes welfare conditions of primates at Edward Taub's Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, MD. Despite legal reversals of PETA's initial success in obtaining the monkeys, the movement is inspired by Pacheco's ability to infiltrate the lab and by the effect on the public of his revelations.
The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) steals a 60-minute video of head-injury experiments
on baboons at the University of Pennsylvania and gives the tape surreptitiously to PETA
for publicity. The publicity and subsequent protests result in NIH funding being cut off for the laboratory. One of the most successful and publicized campaigns for ALF, PETA and
ALF sets fire to the new research facility at UC Davis, intended for agricultural research,
while it is still under construction, causing $4.5 million in damages. The most costly
extremist action to date.
Fur market facing downturn. There is at least some relation to anti-fur campaigns
Animal rights 'liberation' raids total 226, with the majority (105) occurring 1987-1988.
PETA's membership tops 350,000.
Animal Industry Foundation (AIF) formed to counteract animal rights movement (1987)
In Switzerland traditional battery cages outlawed, hens must have access to protected,
soft-floored nest boxes.
European Community bans imports of pelts from leghold traps beginning in 1995.
In the Netherlands battery cages outlawed, access to nest boxes and scratching areas will
be mandated with minimum of 1,000 cm2 /bird.
New Zealand adopts formal codes of minimum standards for the welfare of farm animals
U.S. Animal Welfare Act amended on passage of the Pet Theft Act
U.S. District Court rules that USDA had acted capriciously in excluding rats, mice, and
birds from provisions of the LAWA, forcing their inclusion. 2
USDA Farm and Animal Welfare Committee (interdepartmental) group was formed to
recommend USDA policy statements and actions regarding farm animal welfare. Draft
documents are prepared, but no public release of the information or other formal actions
or follow ups are taken.
Largest animal welfare penalty to date (1995) levied on an Iowa dog breeder, $200,000
fine assessed and license is permanently revoked
Due to the pressure from publicity, United Stockyards changes its policy and euthanizes
PETA's leaders, Alex Pacheco and Ingrid Newkirk are asked to give writing samples and fingerprints to the FBI as their involvement with 'liberation' activities is suspected to be
greater than simple public support.
Winter, 1996-1997: Protester throws Bison entrails at Secretary Glickman
ALF raids total 84 from January, 1990-June, 1993. 5 Multiple raids on mink farms occur
PETA membership reaches 600,000
Table 1 lists the significant differences in philosophies, beliefs, and activities of animal use
proponents, animal welfare groups, and the animal rights movement. Note that the current central
position in the debate is held by welfarists, who do not accept 'factory farming.'
Table 1: The differences in philosophy of animal use proponents, animal welfare groups, and animal rights groups
philosophy and beliefs
||Animals do not require the same ethical considerations as humans, as humanity's needs supersede those of animals.
The most humane way to treat animals is best determined by the researchers or producers using them. Outside determinations of humane treatment is disruptive/ inefficient and often ignorant/ incorrect
|Humans are seen as stewards of animals, and therefore humans should protect animals from unnecessary harm and pain.
Outside oversight of animal uses is necessary to ensure animals' welfare.
|Animals have equal rights as humans and therefore any use of animals is exploitation. Justifying the exploitation of animals is
'speciesism,' the belief that one species is better than another.
Exploitation of animals should be completely outlawed.
activities involving animals which are considered acceptable
||all current uses for research, production of medicines and medical items, and for food and fiber/clothing, hunting, fishing, other animal sports.
||Only those uses which are absolutely necessary , such as food and medical research which cannot be produced without animals. Animals should be killed painlessly; their mental and physical welfare should be considered under all circumstances.
Oppose: the use of pound animals for experiments, animals for blood sports, and 'factory farming'
|As 'companion animals' ie. animals which are given the same treatment as members of the family or allowed to be wild animals. Animals should be allowed to determine their relations with humans, rather than the reverse.
No use for food, fiber, research or any
other reason is tolerable.
||Educational, legislative, and through advertisements.
There is some suspicion that an animal rights activist was entrapped by a research facility on the east coast.
Animal rights groups claim that the 'biomedical/food production' industry promotes false claims about the welfare of animals in use.
|Legislative and educational. Work to increase oversight of animal uses and to educate the public about responsibility toward pets and other animals.
Welfarists are rarely involved in significant controversy. However, animal rightists see them as diminishing the effectiveness of the rights movement.
|Educational, legislative, through advertisements, through promotion of vegetarianism, and through illegal,
destructive activities against animal use industries and research.
Animal use proponents claim that animal rightists make false and misleading claims regarding the welfare and condition of animals in animal use industries